Septic systems are used in Kentucky where municipal sewage treatment is not available. They are an effective, long-standing method of collecting, treating and disposing of homeowner wastewater, provided they are properly sited and installed. However, a well-sited, properly sized and installed system will fail if not properly maintained. A failed septic system creates problems such as noxious odors, lower property values, surface water contamination and groundwater pollution and may be a health hazard. Repair and replacement costs are considerable.